Theodoric of Freiberg (c. 1250 – c. 1310) was a German
member of the Dominican order and a theologian and physicist. He was
named provincial of the Dominican Order in 1293, Albert the Great's old
Dietrich became a
– gave the first geometrical analysis of the
While 13th century authors failed to provide an accurate explanation for
the rainbow, at the turn of the fourteenth century Theodoric was able to
give one of the first correct geometrical analyses of this phenomenon,
which was "probably the most dramatic development of 14th- and
15th-century optics". 
(c. 1290 –1349) was an English cleric, scholar, mathematician,
physicist, courtier and, very briefly,
Archbishop of Canterbury.
As a celebrated scholastic philosopher and doctor of theology, he is
often called Doctor Profundus, (medieval epithet, meaning "the Profound
Merton College sheltered a group of dons devoted to
natural science, mainly physics, astronomy and mathematics, rivals of
the intellectuals at the University of Paris. Bradwardine was one of
these Oxford Calculators, studying mechanics with William Heytesbury,
Richard Swineshead, and John Dumbleton. The Oxford Calculators
distinguished kinematics from dynamics, emphasising kinematics, and
investigating instantaneous velocity. They first formulated the mean
speed theorem: a body moving with constant velocity travels the same
distance as an accelerated body in the same time if its velocity is half
the final speed of the accelerated body. They also demonstrated this
theorem — the foundation of "The Law of Falling Bodies" — long before
Galileo, who is generally credited with it.
The mathematical physicist and historian of science
Clifford Truesdell, wrote:
The now published sources
prove to us, beyond contention, that the main kinematical properties of
uniformly accelerated motions, still attributed to Galileo by the
physics texts, were discovered and proved by scholars of Merton
Bradwardine's theories on the insolubles including
the liar paradox were a great influence on the work of Jean Buridan
The simplest version of
the paradox is the sentence:
This statement is false.
This statement is not
If (B) is neither true
nor false, then it must be not true. Since this is what (B) itself
states, it means that (B) must be true. Since initially (B) was not true
and is now true, another paradox arises.
Can God Lie ?
(c. 1325 –1382), was a significant philosopher of the later Middle Ages.
He wrote influential works on economics, mathematics, physics, astrology
and astronomy, philosophy, and theology; was
Bishop of Lisieux, a translator, a
counselor of King Charles V of France, and probably one of the most
original thinkers of 14th-century Europe.…
A page from Oresme's Livre du ciel et du monde,
1377, showing the celestial spheres
In his Livre du ciel et du monde Oresme discussed a
range of evidence for and against the daily rotation of the Earth on its
axis. From astronomical considerations, he maintained that if the
Earth were moving and not the celestial spheres, all the movements that
we see in the heavens that are computed by the astronomers would appear
exactly the same as if the spheres were rotating around the Earth. He
rejected the physical argument that if the Earth were moving the air
would be left behind causing a great wind from east to west. In his view
the Earth, Water, and Air would all share the same motion. As to the
scriptural passage that speaks of the motion of the Sun, he concludes
that "this passage conforms to the customary usage of popular speech"
and is not to be taken literally. He also noted that it would be
more economical for the small Earth to rotate on its axis than the
immense sphere of the stars. Nonetheless, he concluded that none of
these arguments were conclusive and "everyone maintains, and I think
myself, that the heavens do move and not the Earth."
(1494 –1555) was a German Catholic, scholar and scientist. Known as "the
father of mineralogy"…
He was also elected burgomaster of Chemnitz. His
popularity was, however, short-lived. Chemnitz was a violent centre of
the Protestant movement, while Agricola never wavered in his allegiance
to the Roman Catholic Church ...
he was forced to resign his office. …
In spite of the early proof that Agricola had given
of the tolerance of his own religious attitude, he was not suffered to
end his days in peace. He remained to the end a staunch Catholic, though
all Chemnitz had gone over to the Lutheran creed, and it is said that
his life was ended by a fit of apoplexy brought on by a heated
discussion with a Protestant divine. He died in Chemnitz on 21 November
1555; so violent was the theological feeling against him, he was not
allowed to be buried in the town to which he had added such lustre.
Amidst hostile demonstrations, he was carried to Zeitz, some 50
kilometers away, and buried there.
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli
(1608 –1679) was a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and
mathematician. … Trained in mathematics, Borelli also made extensive
studies of Jupiter's moons, the mechanics of animal locomotion and, in
microscopy, of the constituents of blood. He also used microscopy to
investigate the stomatal movement of plants, and undertook studies in
medicine and geology. During his career, he enjoyed the patronage of
Queen Christina of Sweden.
eventually earning him the title of the Father of Biomechanics. ...
Borelli returned to Messina in 1668 but was quickly
forced into exile for suspected involvement in political conspiracies.
Here he first became acquainted with ex-Queen Christina of Sweden who
had also been exiled to Rome for converting to Catholicism. Borelli
lived the rest of his years in poverty, teaching basic mathematics at
the school of the convent where he had been allowed to live. He never
saw the publication of his masterwork, De Motu Animalium (On the
Movement of Animals) as it was published posthumously, financed by
Christina and his benefactors at the convent. …
For these discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of modern biomechanics and
the American Society of Biomechanics uses the Borelli Award as its
highest honour for research in the area.